Describe which planning, monitoring and review techniques could be used to manage innovation and change
There are a number of tools available to aid you in planning, monitoring and reviewing changes. Some of these include –
- Kotter’s 8 step change model
- PDSA – Plan, Do, Study, Act
- GANTT Charts – Planning activities
- SMART – Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time Bound
- RACI – Roles and responsibilities
- Implementation Plan – Plan out all activities
- Activity tracking chart – Visually sign off each activity when completed
- Review – Meetings, feedback, evaluate, lessons learned
In more detail three of these are:
- GANTT Charts – for planning, scheduling and reviewing activities, created by Henry Gantt in around 1910. A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a projects schedule.
When you create a Gantt chart you need to think of all the projects activities and how long each task will take and what are the dependencies of each task.
By creating a Gantt chart it visualises the project for you to easily analyse and to ensure it is workable. It helps identify critical tasks that must be completed on time to ensure the rest of the project can progress.
Gantt charts are useful for monitoring a project’s progress once it’s underway. You can immediately see what should have been achieved by a certain date and, if the project is behind schedule, you can take action to bring it back on course.
They are also an ideal tool to use to keep your team and stake holders informed of a projects progress and to communicate that key tasks have been completed.
There are a number of software venders that provide specialist software to help create a Gantt chart for your project, one of these is Microsoft Project.
Example of a Gantt chart for a problem / project –
2. PDSA – Plan, Do, Study, Act – You can use plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles to carry out a test or change and assessing its impact.
The four stages of the PDSA cycle:
Plan – the change to be tested or implemented
Do – carry out the test or change
Study – data before and after the change and reflect on what was learned
Act – plan the next change cycle or full implementation
Using PDSA cycles enables you to test out changes before implementation and gives stakeholders the opportunity to see if the proposed change will work. PDSA cycles provides a framework for developing, testing and implementing changes leading to improvement.
The framework includes three key questions and a process for testing change ideas. Step one is to answer all three questions –
- What are we trying to accomplish? (The aims statement)
- How will we know if the change is an improvement?
- What changes can we make that will result in improvement?
Step two should start the PDSA cycle and step three is to record your PDSA cycle results over time to capture the change improvement process.
3. SMART – Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time Bound – One way to develop well-written objectives is to use the SMART approach. Developing specific, measurable objectives requires time, orderly thinking, and a clear picture of the results expected.
Specific: A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. To set a specific goal you must answer the six “W” questions:
*Who: Who is involved?
*What: What do I want to accomplish?
*Where: Identify a location.
*When: Establish a time frame.
*Which: Identify requirements and constraints.
*Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal.
Measurable – Establish concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of each goal you set.
When you measure your progress, you stay on track, reach your target dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievement that spurs you on to continued effort required to reach your goal.
Attainable – There is little point in setting a goal that is either too difficult to achieve or beyond your capabilities, as this will only serve to de-motivate you and destroy your self-confidence. The importance of being able to accomplish a goal is equally vital when you are setting goals for others, as it is for yourself
Realistic– To be realistic, a goal must represent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work. A goal can be both high and realistic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. But be sure that every goal represents substantial progress.
Timely – A goal should be constrained within a time frame. With no time frame tied to it there’s no sense of urgency.
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